Every year, about 30 percent of South Dakota high school graduates who enroll in a state university must take remedial courses in math or English because they don't test high enough in those topics. Those courses cost the students about $1,000 per class and provide them with no college credit.

The classes are designed to help college-bound students catch up and be ready to take algebra, English composition or other basic classes needed to graduate.

Yet national studies and data from South Dakota universities show that enrollment in a remedial course dramatically reduces the likelihood a student will graduate or complete a degree program. The same problem exists at state technical schools that also require remedial courses for students who test poorly in math or English.

Students forced to take remediation endure additional tuition costs and lose pace with their peers.

"Having to take remedial coursework doesn't doom you, but it puts you behind the eight ball right out of the box in terms of your chances of graduating," said Jay Perry, interim vice president for academic affairs at the South Dakota Board of Regents.

In South Dakota, taking a required remedial course reduces the likelihood of graduating by about half. In 2012, about 43 percent of students who started at a state university and did not need a remedial course graduated in four years, while only 23 percent of students who underwent remediation graduated in four years.

Multiple efforts are underway to improve teaching, learning and testing to better prepare students, and reforms are also taking place at universities to shift students away from remediation and into classes that give them credit and don't throw them off pace to graduate.

For the first time starting this fall, students who don't test high enough in math will no longer be required to take a remedial math class and instead will be offered a course called Quantitative Literacy with a learning lab that will cost them less money, give them college credit and hopefully pave the way to graduation.

Paul Beran, the new president of the Board of Regents, told a legislative committee recently that the high level of required remediation often leads to blaming of the public school system on several levels. Beran also said the problem is not one with easy answers or a quick fix.

Beran said continued conversation among educators at all levels is needed to "figure out how we can lessen [remediation] and how we can make it as quick as possible and help those who are motivated to move forward to do that." He then added: "I wish I had a better answer."

Changing nature of remediation

The problem has plagued educational leaders at the high school and university levels in South Dakota for years. In 2010, about 31.5 percent of the nearly 3,000 South Dakota high school graduates who enrolled in state universities full time were required to take remedial math, English or both. In 2017, about 32.8 percent of students were forced to remediate at some level.

The original intent was to help out students who qualified for college but were weak in key subject areas that form the basis for advanced learning in a number of fields. Many years ago, the classes were dominated by non-traditional students who wanted to brush up on the basics before starting off on a delayed college journey.

But as enrollment requirements were lowered, and obtaining a college degree became more critical to landing a good job after graduation, more people entered college and the need for remediation grew among recent high school graduates.

Now, most remedial classes are dominated by recent high school graduates, and data clearly show those students are less likely to complete a degree program.

Taking remedial classes in South Dakota at any level is not cheap. Perry said the per-credit cost is much higher than for credit-bearing courses. Depending on the school, remediation classes cost $340 per credit compared to about $245 per credit for courses that count toward graduation.

At state technical schools, the cost for remedial courses is the same for credit-bearing courses, about $210 per credit or $420 for the two-credit courses. Remedial classes at tech schools do not count toward earning a degree or certification, said Julie Brookbank, spokeswoman at Mitchell Technical Institute.

South Dakota shifted to a more comprehensive student placement model several years ago that includes an index of results in math from college entrance exams, the statewide Smarter Balance standardized test and high school grade point average. Placement in English remediation is based on failure to reach one of four testing benchmarks.

University officials believe the expanded math index and English benchmarks will reduce the need for remediation by students who perhaps did not test well but possess the skills and work ethic to succeed in college.

The high remediation rate in South Dakota is a frustrating and frequent topic of discussion among policymakers and officials in state government.

At a press conference following release of her first proposed annual budget, Gov. Kristi Noem acknowledged that South Dakota students aren't performing as well as they should upon graduation. Noem, whose budget plan calls for a 2.5 percent spending hike in the K-12 and technical school systems in the coming year, said improvements can start with reforms at the level of individual school districts that have good ideas or have seen success.

Beran said discussions of remediation tend to focus on blaming the K-12 education system, but he said that ignores the fact that modern students face social, cultural and economic stresses that can make learning a challenge.

"The fact of the matter is, the biggest predictor of success of a student has nothing to do with what happens at a school," Beran told the committee. "The biggest predictor of success is walk into their home and how many books do they have on the shelf?"

Ben Jones, interim secretary for the Department of Education, said improving learning in the K-12 system may require a deep dive into school districts or even individual schools to seek out and correct weaknesses and to find and model successes.

An example, Jones said, would be to react swiftly if a small district had a wave of retirements that drastically reduced the amount of teaching experience within a school's English or math department. Administrators could then work to shift resources to provide more experienced teachers within that school so student achievement doesn't fall off.

"Looking at a statewide average doesn't always help you move the needle; you have to look at pockets of high or low performance and if they're having difficulties, and ask what can we do to help them out," Jones said.

Ground-level efforts underway

In recent years, the state has taken steps to reduce the number of incoming college freshmen who need remedial coursework.

One program started in the 2013-14 school year gives college bound high school seniors that opportunity to take additional online coursework aimed specifically at passing tests and avoiding remediation.

Under the College Readiness Coursework program, students who sign up are given a pre-test to determine subject weaknesses and then receive online and in-person tutoring before taking a post-test that can be used to skip remedial coursework in college. Students pay a fee ranging from $125 to $175 for the course but are fully reimbursed by the state if they complete it.

"What's unique about the coursework is that it is tailored to the individual student's needs," said Becky Nelson, director of learning and instruction at the state education department.

So far, participation by school districts and students has been low, Nelson said. In 2016, 100 students completed the course, followed by 90 in 2017 and only 61 in 2018. Passage rates have ranged from 51 to 73 percent.

The most aggressive efforts to reduce the number of students in math remediation have taken place at South Dakota State University. Kurt Cogswell, head of the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at SDSU, led the effort to create the math placement index that is now used across the university system, and SDSU also developed a course in which some students could avoid remediation by taking college algebra with a co-requisite class that provides tutoring, study skills and additional support.

Math educators know that passing college algebra, sometimes referred to as "the killer course," is a graduation requirement that frequently prevents students from getting a degree.

Using the placement index and the co-requisite algebra course reduced the number of SDSU students in math remediation classes from 1,142 in 2012-13 to only 250 this academic year.

With results in hand, Cogswell worked with the Board of Regents to create the Regental Math Pathway Model, which was approved and will begin at South Dakota universities as early as this fall.

Under the program, no future students who qualify to enter college will have to take a remedial math class. Instead, Cogswell said, the students will take an existing 3-credit course called Quantitative Literacy with a co-requisite two-credit math lab where they will learn study skills and receive educational support. Not only will students save money compared to paying for remediation, but they will also take a credit-bearing math class that for many liberal arts majors will be the only math class they need to graduate. Cogswell said the course has some of the same components of algebra but approaches math use in more real-world settings.