Newest planet may be candidate for life
The search for Earth-like planets circling other stars is heating up, but the latest discovery is not too hot at all. It's not too cold, either. Instead, the temperature on the newly announced planet Kepler-22b could be just right for life -- about 72 degrees, a perfect spring day on Earth.
Spied by NASA's Kepler space telescope, Kepler-22b marks the best candidate yet for a life-bearing world beyond our solar system, project scientists said Monday.
"If it has a surface, it ought to have a nice temperature," said Kepler's lead scientist, Bill Borucki, during a teleconference Monday.
"It's right in the middle of the habitable zone," said Natalie Batahla, a Kepler scientist, referring to the narrow, balmy band of space around any star where water can be liquid. "The other exciting thing is that it orbits a star very, very similar to our own sun."
The actual temperature on Kepler-22b hinges on whether the planet has an atmosphere, which, like a blanket, would warm the surface. Even without an atmosphere, Borucki said, the planet would likely be warm enough to host liquid water on its surface.
If it has a surface.
At 2.4 times wider than Earth, the composition of Kepler-22b is a puzzle. It could be rocky, a "super-Earth" much like our planet but bigger. It might also be a water world covered with deep oceans, said Dimitar Sasselov, a Kepler scientist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Or it could be gaseous like Neptune or Uranus.
Determining the planet's composition rests in part on measuring its mass -- how heavy it is. The Kepler telescope is unable to make this measurement, but ground-based telescopes can by watching the planet tugging on its star. Telescopes in Hawaii and elsewhere will attempt these measurements when the star comes into view next summer, Borucki said.
Besides its balmy temperature, Kepler-22b shares other intriguing similarities with Earth. The planet's home star, some 600 light years distant and near the constellation Cygnus, is "almost a solar twin," Batahla said. That means the light hitting the planet's surface would be almost the same color as the light hitting Earth. And Kepler-22b's year is almost the same length as an Earth year: 290 days instead of 365.
Finding Kepler-22b required a bit of luck. The Kepler telescope first spied the planet crossing the face of its star just days after the telescope became operational in 2009, Borucki said. As Kepler kept staring, it witnessed two more crossings, one of which occurred just days before the telescope was set to go offline for a few weeks.